Professor Emerita in History, University of London. Visiting Professor in History, Birkbeck College, London. Publications include: The Foundations of the Welfare State (Longman, 1982, 2nd ed. 1996); Old Age in English History. Past Experiences, Present Issues (Oxford University Press, 2000); Women and Ageing in British Society since 1500 co. ed with Lynn Botelho  (Longman, 2001); The Long History of Old Age ed (Thames and Hudson, Getty Museum, LA, 2005);  Britain’s Pensions Crisis. History and Policy co ed with Hugh Pemberton and Noel Whiteside (British Academy/Oxford University Press 2006); Unequal Britain. Equalities in Britain since 1945 ed. (Bloomsbury 2010); Sinners? Scroungers? Saints? Unmarried Motherhood in Twentieth Century England with Tanya Evans (OUP 2012).  Pat Thane The Child Poverty Action Group, 1965-2015 (2016), with Ruth Davidson. Divided Kingdom. A History of Britain, 1900 to the Present (Cambridge University Press, 2018).